Clarification occurs in a large basin where water is again allowed to flow very slowly. Sludge, a residue of solids and water, accumulates at the basin's bottom and is pumped or scraped out for eventual disposal. Clarification is also sometimes called sedimentation.
Steps of Clarification
- Coagulation. Coagulation can be accomplished through the addition of inorganic salts of aluminum or iron. These inorganic salts neutralize the charge on the particles causing raw water turbidity, and also hydrolyze to form insoluble precipitates, which entrap particles. Coagulation can also be effected by the addition of water-soluble organic polymers with numerous ionized sites for particle charge neutralization.
- Flocculation. Flocculation, the agglomeration of destabilized particles into large particles, can be enhanced by the addition of high-molecular-weight, water-soluble organic polymers. These polymers increase floc size by charged site binding and by molecular bridging.
The coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation process requires three distinct unit processes:
- high shear, rapid mix for coagulation
- low shear, high retention time, moderate mixing for flocculation
- liquid and solids separation
Horizontal Flow Clarifiers
Originally, conventional clarification units consisted of large, rectangular, concrete basins divided into two or three sections. Each stage of the clarification process occurred in a single section of the basin. Water movement was horizontal with plug flow through these systems.
Compact and relatively economical, upflow clarifiers provide coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation in a single (usually circular) steel or concrete tank. These clarifiers are termed "upflow" because the water flows up toward the effluent launders as the suspended solids settle. They are characterized by increased solids contact through internal sludge recirculation. This is a key feature in maintaining a high-clarity effluent and a major difference from horizontal clarifiers.
Sludge Blanket and Solids-Contact Clarification
Most upflow designs are called either "sludge blanket" or "solids-contact" clarifiers. After coagulation and/or flocculation in the sludge blanket units, the incoming water passes through the suspended layer of previously formed floc
In-line clarification is the process of removing raw water turbidity through the addition of coagulant just prior to filtration. In-line clarification is generally limited to raw waters with typical turbidities of less than 20 NTU, although upflow filters may tolerate higher loading. Polyelectrolytes and/or inorganic coagulants are used to improve filtration efficiency and run length. Polymers are favored because they do not create additional suspended solids loading, which can shorten filter run length.
The most efficient method for adding coagulation chemicals varies according to the type of water and system used, and must be checked by means of jar testing. However, there is a usual sequence:
- bentonite (for low-turbidity waters)
- primary inorganic and/or polymer coagulant
- pH-adjusting chemicals
- coagulant aid