KASRAVAND will design, manufacture and install filters for waste water treatment systems; Filtration is used in addition to regular coagulation and sedimentation for removal of solids from surface water or wastewater. This prepares the water for use as potable, boiler, or cooling make-up. Wastewater filtration helps users meet more stringent effluent discharge permit requirements.

Filtration, usually considered a simple mechanical process, actually involves the mechanisms of adsorption (physical and chemical), straining, sedimentation, interception, diffusion, and inertial compaction.

Filtration does not remove dissolved solids, but may be used together with a softening process, which does reduce the concentration of dissolved solids.


Quartz sand, silica sand, anthracite coal, garnet, magnetite, and other materials may be used as filtration media. Silica sand and anthracite are the most commonly used types. When silica is not suitable (e.g., in filters following a hot process softener where the treated water is intended for boiler feed), anthracite is usually used.


The terms "multilayer," "in-depth," and "mixed media" apply to a type of filter bed which is graded by size and density. Coarse, less dense particles are at the top of the filter bed, and fine, denser particles are at the bottom. Down flow filtration allows deep, uniform penetration by particulate matter and permits high filtration rates and long service runs. Because small particles at the bottom are also more dense (less space between particles), they remain at the bottom. Even after high-rate backwashing, the layers remain in their proper location in the mixed media filter bed.


Gravity filters are open vessels that depend on system gravity head for operation. The essential components of a gravity filter include the following:

  • The filter shell, which is either concrete or steel and can be square, rectangular, or circular. Rectangular reinforced concrete units are most widely used.
  • The support bed, which prevents loss of fine sand or anthracite through the underdrain system. The support bed, usually 1-2 ft deep, also distributes backwash water.
  • An underdrain system, which ensures uniform collection of filtered water and uniform distribution of backwash water. The system may consist of a header and laterals, with perforations or strainers spaced suitably. False tank bottoms with appropriately spaced strainers are also used for underdrain systems.
  • Wash water troughs, large enough to collect backwash water without flooding. The troughs are spaced so that the horizontal travel of backwash water does not exceed 3-3 ft. In conventional sand bed units, wash troughs are placed approximately 2 ft above the filter surface. Sufficient freeboard must be provided to prevent loss of a portion of the filter media during operation at maximum backwash rates.
  • Control devices that maximize filter operation efficiency. Flow rate controllers, operated by venturi tubes in the effluent line, automatically maintain uniform delivery of filtered water. Backwash flow rate controllers are also used. Flow rate and head loss gauges are essential for efficient operation.


Pressure filters are typically used with hot process softeners to permit high-temperature operation and to prevent heat loss. The use of pressure filters eliminates the need for repumping of filtered water. Pressure filters are similar to gravity filters in that they include filter media, supporting bed, underdrain system, and control device; however, the filter shell has no wash water troughs.


In-line clarification is the removal of suspended solids through the addition of in-line coagulant followed by rapid filtration. This process is also referred to as in-line filtration, or contact filtration. The process removes suspended solids without the use of sedimentation basins. Coagulation may be achieved in in-line clarification by either of two methods:

  • an inorganic aluminum or iron salt used alone or with a high molecular weight polymeric coagulant
  • a strongly cationic organic polyelectrolyte


Precoat filtration is used to remove very small particulate matter, oil particles, and even bacteria from water. This method is practical only for relatively small quantities of water which contain low concentrations of contaminants.